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Wednesday, January 29, 2014

English Definite and Zero Articles, Explanations


  1. Deserts: the Sahara, the Gobi
  2. Capes : the Cape of Good Hope
  3. Rivers: the Danube, the Nile, the Mississippi
  4. Seas: the Black Sea
  5. Oceans: the Atlantic Ocean
  6. Countries [ few]: the USA, the  Netherlands, theRepublic of Korea, the U.K., the Republic of China [ or, simply, China, with no article ]
  7. Cities [ few] : the Hague
  8. Ships: the Titanic, the Queen Victoria, the Mayflower
  9. Newspapers: the Guardian, the Times, the New York Times
  10. Institutions, organizations: libraries, theaters, cinemas, town halls: the Town Hall, the University of Virginia, the United Nations[ the U.N.], the F.B.I
  11. Groups of Islands: the Hebrides, the Philippines
  12. Mountain ranges : the Alps, the Carpathians, the Andes
  13. Canals : The Suez
  14. Gulfs : the San Francisco Gulf
  15. Hotels: the Marriott
  16. Restaurants: the Lido
  17. Museums: the Madame Tussauds
  18. Groups of lakes : the Great Lakes
  19. Plurals: the Kennedys
  20. Number ranges: the Sixties
  21. Zoos: the Brookfield Zoo
  22. Some buildings: the Empire State Building
  23. Languages [with “language”] : the Korean language
  24. Titles [no name] : the President, the Sun King
  25. Regions :the Midwest
  26. German mountains: the Matterhorn
                                ZERO ARTICLE

 1. The generic function: this function is specific to the zero article; it goes with mass nouns:

Dogs are friendly animals
Water is heavier than oil.
Blood is thicker than water.
Love is a noble feeling.
Music is the finest of arts.

Man is mortal.
Spring begins in March.
Breakfast is the first meal of the day.

  2. Before the vocatives:
         Listen, John! Good bye, Sir! Of course, boy!

    3.  Zero article can be a non – significant determiner in a variety of cases:
-        with proper nouns, names of countries, towns, continents,  people, months of the year, days of the week, languages, titles and ranks.

E.g. Europe, Romania, Africa, Rome, John, January, Monday,
-        With titles and ranks + surname or when we address a person by his / her title or rank, articles of any kind are dropped.
Professor Johnson is away.
Dr. Cook has not been here for ten years.
Captain Brown has come recently.
Can I talk to you, Doctor?
Colonel, someone is looking for you!

     4. Zero article is used before meals:

We are having dinner at eight.

   5.  Zero article after prepositions:

--the definite article is not used before the nouns listed below:
We go to /bed / sleep / church / hospital / school / college /university
--exceptions to the rule are: cathedral, cinema, theatre, office
John and Mary are at the cinema.
We go to the theater every week.

6. Zero article with nouns associated with numerals:
We say: Ex. 10, Lesson 5, Chapter 11, Volume 9, Book 1, Section 3

 7.  Zero article in set phrases:

From time to time
At dawn / night / midday / noon / midnight
From dawn to dusk
By sea / land / train
On sale
Last night
In front of

8. Sometimes the article is omitted in stage directions, titles, telegrams, poetry.
Mutilated body found in Yellow Lake![newspaper title] 
Boys coming Monday night! [telegram]

   9. Zero article is used with:

People: Queen Victoria
Large lakes: Lake Ontario
Single mountains : Mt. Fuji [ exceptions to the rule: the Matterhorn, the Jungfrau ]
“Name” – number : Chapter 6, Flight 167
Individual people: Maggie, G. Bush
Continents, countries, states, cities: AustraliaCanada,IllinoisChicago
Months, days : October, Monday
Languages: Korean
Streets, Avenues: Lincoln Ave.
Small lakes: Homer Lake
Single islands: Staten Island
Colleges / Universities : Harvard [University], but : theUniversity of Harvard
Parks : Hessel ParkHyde Park
Magazines: Life
Some buildings: Davenport Hall

Monday, January 20, 2014

Miscellaneous, Test 2


·  He ___ smoke a lot, but after he got ill, he decided to quit smoking.
a. used to
b. was used to

·  My life was rather dull ___ I decided to move to the city.
a. unless
b. until

·  His watch ___
a. has been stolen.
b. has stolen

·  Little ___ that their plan has been discovered.
a. do they suspect
b. they suspect

·  ___ the rain, we went to the club.
a. Despite
b. Despite of

·  He didn't go to the party. Now he regrets ___ so.
a. not having done
b. not have done

·  If I had known I'd hurt him so much, I ___ that.
a. couldn't have said
b. wouldn't have said

·  Personally I ___ go to Greece.
a. would rather
b. would prefer

·  She hasn't read the article, nor ___ the essay.
a. has written
b. has she written

·  Margaret ___ her mother the prize she had gotten in the competition.
a. proudly showed
b. showed proudly

·  Have you picked up my ___ by mistake?
a. car's key
b. car key

·  I wonder how much ___
a. that car is.
b. is that car

·  Our customer's money ___ if they're not satisfied with the product.
a. will be refunded
b. will have been refunded

·  It's clearly stated that you ___ copy the site without written permission from the webmaster.
a. should not
b. ought not

·  This ticket ___ a free meal in our new cafeteria.
a. entitles you to
b. entitles you for

·  The price of oil ___ several times in the last two years.
a. has gone up
b. went up

·  ___ for the TOEFL exam in June, we took a sham exam in April.
a. Prepare
b. To prepare

·  I'm sure that by the end of this week, I ___ the books I have already ordered.
a. will have been getting
b. will have got

·  Everything depends on ___ we get a raise in our salary.
a. if
b. whether

·  The policeman is demanding that the thief ___ the crime.
a. confess
b. confesses

Saturday, January 11, 2014

Prepositions, Exercise 1

Put IN, AT or ON in the blanks :
It gets very cold ___ winter.

Betty doesn't have a job ___ the moment.

The telephone and the doorbell rang ___ the same time.

He flew from Japan. He's probably ___ Perth now.

Would you like to go out to dinner ___ Friday night?

She was tired. She's ___ bed now.

Goodbye! I'll see you ___ the morning.

Were you ___ Tom's party last night?

I'll see you ___ two weeks time.

She was born ___ 1961.

The doctor will see you ___ 10:00.
___ the age of ten I wanted to be a firefighter.

My wife gave me a wonderful present ___ my birthday.

The coffee is ___ the shelf.

My pen is ___ my pencil case.

He's gone to work. He's probably ___ work now.

He lives ___ Australia.

___ my opinion you should buy the blue shirt.
___ second thought, the green shirt is nicer.

I'll see you ___ Monday.

I'll be taking my holiday ___ Christmas this year.

Buy some bread and milk ___ your way home.